Concordia University Texas is located on a 400-acre tract in Northwest Austin, four miles east of Lake Travis. The university dedicated approximately 250 acres of its campus as a nature and wildlife preserve as part of a conservation easement with Travis County.
The campus is a living classroom for the study of responsible urban environmentalism and offers a unique opportunity to investigate and manage endangered species, native plants, hydrology, forestry, geology and archeology in a spectacular setting crafted by God’s divine hand.
The Concordia Preserve is part of the regional Balcones Canyonlands Preserve (BCP) created in 1996 to protect eight federally listed endangered species, including two songbirds (Golden-cheeked 莺 and Black-capped Vireo, both found on the Concordia preserve) and six invertebrates.
The BCP is managed under a regional permit issued under section 10(a) of the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish Wildlife Services and jointly held by Travis County and The City of Austin. The Concordia preserve was created by permit TE-827597-2 from U.S. Fish Wildlife. The BCP currently incorporates approximately 27,000 acres and will ultimately include 30,000 acres of prime habitat, making it one of the nations largest urban preserves (current BCP地图).
The campus sits along the eastern edge of the Jollyville Plateau (part of the larger Edwards Plateau) where five tributaries merge to form Bull Creek. The university is located above the central valley in the Bull Creek Watershed, a 25 square mile region that drains to the Colorado River at Lady Bird Lake (Town Lake). The area passes through the environmentally sensitive Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone. As a result, hydrology and the flow of water through the area (both quantity and quality) is extremely important.
Within the Concordia Preserve there are 28 archeological sites, 13 of which have been included within the National Register of Historic Places. These sites include 10 rock shelters, two open terrace sites and one Central Texas burned rock midden.
A ROCKSHELTER is formed by projecting limestone rock ledges that have weathered over time and form a cavity which continues to increase in size. As the cavity grows portions of the ceiling can flake and fall to the floor of the cavity. It is not unusual for these rock shelters to have been inhabited, with the archaeological layer subsequently covered by falling rock.
OPEN TERRACE sites contain natural stair-steps to the top of a canyon or upland area. These areas are often found close to reliable water supplies and can contain cooking areas (hearths) and work areas for manufacturing tools.
A BURNED ROCK MIDDEN is a low, donut-shaped mound of heat-fractured rock, ash, carbonized plant and animal remains and artifacts used by prehistoric people for outdoor cooking and baking.
For generations Native Americans living on the headwaters of Bull Creek took advantage of the geological and hydrological systems supporting the biology of this valley. Intact archaeological sites, when investigated, reveal the prehistory of these peoples in the places where they lived, ate and worked. As a group, these archaeological sites tell the story of the people who once lived in this valley.
The Concordia Preserve exists to preserve a variety of special features in an essentially pristine and undisturbed setting, including precious archaeological remains, endangered wildlife and native plants and appropriate hydrology. The 250-acre tract is held in trust by Concordia for the benefit of community research and will not be developed. The preserve is closed to the public.
Click to view the site constraint map of the nature preserve (PDF)
Importance of Watersheds
A watershed is an area of land that drains to a particular creek, lake or aquifer. Water travels from the highest hill to the lowest area where it forms some body of water. Austin has 66 creek watersheds, most of which enter the Colorado River at Lady Bird Lake (Town Lake) before flowing to the Gulf of Mexico.
In old Austin most rain water runs off the land and down streets to a storm drain, picking up pollutants as it travels. It then flows through underground pipes that lead directly to creeks. New developments are required to install water treatment ponds to capture some runoff and remove a portion of the pollutants before reaching creeks.
How Development Can Impact a Watershed
In an undeveloped watershed, about 50% of rainfall is absorbed by the land. Vegetation and soil filter pollutants from the water as it moves slowly down into groundwater. Traveling below the surface, groundwater re-emerges at the seeps and springs that feed various creeks. This process provides baseflow, the constant source of freshwater that supports aquatic life and creates flowing streams to sustain humans.
In developed watersheds, roadways, parking lots and rooftops cover much of the land. Rainwater that previously infiltrated to groundwater quickly runs off these hard surfaces. Baseflow in the creeks is reduced while the chances of flooding and stream bank erosion are increased. Many creeks in old Austin have excessive flow during heavy rains and dry up shortly afterward. New developments are required to build water detention ponds to reduce flooding and erosion.
Karst is the English word for Kras, a Slovenian region in Eastern Europe resting on a limestone plateau. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of mineral calcite (calcium carbonate). The primary source of calcite is usually shells of marine organisms. Secondary calcite can also be deposited by groundwater that precipitates the material in caves.
Karst topography is a unique landscape formed when soluble bedrock such as limestone, dolomite or gypsum, dissolves over time by groundwater. Rainwater, made acidic by carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and soil, slowly infiltrates rock cracks, dissolving the rock and enlarging openings.
The dissolution process produces fissures, sinkholes, underground streams and caverns. Karst openings often support unique ecosystems that include plants, bacteria, crickets, spiders, fish, amphibians (such as salamanders) and small mammals.
The Golden-cheeked 莺s (Dendroica chrysoparia)and cave (Dendroica chrysoparia) is a true Texas native. The species is known to nest only in Central Texas. 莺s migrate to the region from Central America and southern Mexico in mid-March to nest and raise their young. They return to their southern home in late July or early August for the winter months.
莺s frequent closed-canopy woodlands of mature Ashe juniper (often called cedar), live oak, Spanish oak, and shin oak. This type of habitat is typically found in relatively moist areas with steep-sided canyons and slopes. Feeding on insects and spiders, 莺s use long strips of cedar bark and spider webs to build their nests. Females lay 3-4 eggs during nesting, and an adult reaches a length of 4.5 inches. The Golden-cheeked 莺 has been on the endangered species list since May 4, 1990.
The Black-capped Vireo (Vireo atricapilla) migrates to Texas from the western coast of Mexico to nest from April through July. They prefer range lands with scattered clumps of shrubs separated by open grassland. The Vireo builds a cup-shaped nest in the fork of a branch 2-4 feet above the ground. Nests are normally constructed in shrubs such as shin oak or sumac.
Females lay 3-4 eggs that hatch in 14-17 days. Both parents incubate the eggs and feed the chicks with a diet of insects. Adults reach a length of 4.5 inches and have a lifespan of 5-6 years. Males sing to attract mates and defend their territory, which is usually 2-4 acres in size. The Black-capped Vireo was placed on the endangered species list on October 6, 1987.